Jamieson, in only his sixth Test, had the figures of five for 69, the third five-wicket haul of his fledgling career.
New Zealand won the toss and bowled first on the green strip and as Jamieson found bounce and movement to claim four wickets at one end, Azhar was defiant at the other as he established key partnerships for Pakistan.
Trent Boult takes the final wicket! Pakistan are all out for 297 on day one at Hagley Oval! Kyle Jamieson with his… https://t.co/5CaecYIzY3
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After the early loss of Shan Masood, Azhar added 62 with Abid Ali, 88 with Mohhamad Rizwan and 56 with Faheem Ashraf.
After holding the innings together for 172 deliveries, Azhar was caught at first slip by Ross Taylor off the bowling of Matt Henry who was called into the New Zealand side to replace Neil Wagner who broke two toes in the first Test.
It was an uncharacteristic shot from Azhar who, until then, had moved his feet and was prepared to leave most deliveries that did not require a shot, and when there were edges they fell safely.
He went to the middle early when Tim Southee accounted for Shan Masood with a toe-crushing yorker in the third over and was there for the carnage when Jamieson came into the attack.
In a destructive three-over burst before lunch, Jamieson removed Abid Ali (25), Haris Sohail (one) and Fawad Alam (two) using his 2.3 metre (6ft 8in) frame to ruffle the batsmen with an awkward bounce which he mixed with testing full deliveries.
Truly a commentator curse of the highest order.Good 🥜 by Timmy and you can’t keep the big man out of it with a ti… https://t.co/U35fg2NjH2
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The delivery that accounted for Alam was almost unplayable as it reared up forcing the batsman to put his hands up in a reflex action and the ball was gloved to wicketkeeper BJ Watling.
In the middle session Rizwan was in punishing form with 11 boundaries on his way to 61 off 71 deliveries, before he was caught in two minds by a fuller Jamieson delivery that came back at him and an inconclusive shot was edged to Watling.
After the tea adjournment, and once Henry had removed Azhar, Jamieson returned to see off Ashraf who was out for 48 when he edged a ball outside off stump to Ross Taylor at first slip. Taylor had earlier dropped Ashraf in the first over he faced.
Zafar Gohar, on debut, reached 34 before Jamieson was back in action, this time to take the crucial catch at fine leg to give Southee his second wicket.
Trent Boult mopped up the tail taking the wickets of Shaheen Afridi (four) and Naseem Shah (12).
The New Zealand first innings will start Monday.